Sunday, March 22, 2020

Cubism Essays (1304 words) - Art Movements, Modern Art, Cubism

Cubism Cubism is one of the first forms of abstract art. Cubism was a movement in painting that sought to break down objects into basic shapes of cubes, spheres, cylinders, and cones. Cubism originated in France and was influenced by African sculptures and by Paul Cezanne. The first cubist works were those in which objects, landscapes, and people are represented as many-sided solids. This enables you to see various views of the object at the same time. Later, cubism changed using a flatter type of abstraction, in which the complete pattern, becomes more important, and the objects represented are largely indecipherable. At first, most artists painted with little color. Most paintings were either monochromatic or gray, blue, brown, and white.? The final phase of cubism is called synthetic. In this phase color reappears as a primary element in the artwork. Cezanne was an artist who led the way to cubism or abstract art. Before Cezanne, artists would portray the world realistically. It is above all C?zanne's obsession with formal elements of composition and his use of color as tone rather than the Impressionist pursuit of light on surface that makes his art so important to those who followed. C?zanne's works made it possible for artists to start to question what they saw, the way in which they saw it, and how they interpreted and represented what was in front of them. Cezanne felt that paintings should reflect artist's sensations made into a pictorial form by brush strokes, color, and lines. He was known to work slowly and use colors to build shapes. In the still-life pictures that he made of fruits and bowls one can tell that he worked slowly as there are different and contradicting shadows in his pictures. Early in his career Cezanne loved to paint Sainte-Victoire (landscapes). Later he painted portraits such as Woman with a Coffee Po t and The Card Players. When he began to paint landscape again he used the bathers in his paintings. Later Cezanne would have a great impact on Picasso's paintings. Pablo Picasso is one of the most famous cubists. As he grew up his father encouraged him to become an artist. From 1901 to 1904 is called the Blue Period because Picasso used blue tones when he painted and his paintings showed poverty, death, and blindness. The Blue Period marks a deliberate step towards a plastic representation of form and emotional subject matter.? From 1904-1906, the Rose Period is when Picasso painted circuses, actors, and harlequin. This is when he visits family in Barcelona, Spain, and refreshes his memories of Romanesque and Gothic art. Even more important to him at this time was the discovery of Iberian sculpture dating from pre-Roman times, examples of which had been recently acquired by the Louvre. They attracted him by their unorthodox proportions, their disregard for refinement, and their rude barbaric strength. These influences rapidly gained an important place in his work, and lead to the sculptural distortions of nudes painted on his return to Paris.? From 1907-1909 is called the Negro Period. The paintings of Cezanne became familiar to Picasso. Picasso had also discovered the greatness of an obscure old man, Douanier Rousseau. These were the years when the power of primitive art imported from Africa and the South Seas was beginning to be noticed by certain painters in Paris, and styles which had formally been despised as barbaric began to be recognized as possessing great emotive strength.? Picasso painted Les Demoiselles d'Avignon to recapture primitive art. The new style depended in particular on a simplification of form and a clarification of the methods by which it was depicted. With a disregard for classical tradition, distortions were used freely to emphasize volume and convey emotional sensation. Picasso said I paint objects as I think them, not as I see them. Picasso was increasingly drawn to making creations according to his own internal vision. In African art he had found a conceptual art which was not based on immediat e visual reactions to a model. The original impact had been violent. It had forged the first real link between African art and Western ideas and it was followed during the two years that succeeded the painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. At

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Jarir Bookstore

Jarir Bookstore Individual Project Introduction The government of Saudi Arabia adopted a new labor in 2012 that compels companies in the private sector to employ more Saudis than foreigners. The government adopted the new law in order to reduce the high unemployment rate in the country. However, the law is expected to have significant effects in various industries in the country because most companies depend on the labor supplied by foreigners rather than Saudis (Hamdan).Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Jarir Bookstore specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This paper will analyze the effect of this law on Jarir Bookstore, which is a leading retail company in Saudi Arabia. The company supplies computers, office equipment, and books among other products (Jarir). In particular, it will shed light on the risks associated with the legislation and the strategies that the company has adopted to overcome them. Additionally, it will highligh t the future implications of the new law to the company and its stakeholders. The Major Issues In November 2012, the government of Saudi Arabia enacted a new labor law that forces all private companies in the country to hire more Saudis than foreigners (Hamdan). This law was adopted against the backdrop of rising unemployment rate in the country. According to the new law, the number of Saudis working in private companies must exceed that of foreigners. Companies that fail to comply with this law are expected to pay a fine of approximately $640 annually for each employee from a foreign country (Hamdan). Jarir Bookstore is one the companies that were negatively affected by the new labor law. In 2012, the company had more than one thousand employees who were working in its stores in Saudi Arabia (Jarir). 60% of the employees were expats from Asian countries (Jarir). This means that the company had to pay the fine of $640 per foreign employee in order to maintain 60% of its workforce. I n this regard, the operating cost of the company was likely to increase because it was not ready to absorb the extra labor costs associated with the fine. Since its inception in 1979, Jarir Bookstore has focused on employing foreigners in order to reduce its operating costs. This strategy was based on the fact that expats demand lower wages than Saudis (Madhi and Barrientos 70-77). Thus, it is cheaper to employ foreigners than Saudis. In addition, most Saudis are reluctant to work in the private sector because the public sector pays higher wages. Since the company operates in cosmopolitan cities within Saudi Arabia, it prefers to employ people with good command of English and other international languages in order to serve its diverse clientele effectively. In this regard, the company hires multilingual foreigners since most Saudis speak only in Arabic rather than international languages such as English. Thus, replacing the expats was likely to have negative effects on the competiti veness of the company.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Resolution Even though the enactment of the law came as a surprise to the company, it had no choice but to comply with it in order to avoid the costs associated with the fine. In order to prevent disruptions in its operations, the company had to replace most of the expats in its workforce immediately. Almost 80% of the company’s workforce consists of frontline employees who are responsible for performing duties such as sales and fulfilling customers’ orders (Jarir). Even though most Saudis are qualified to perform clerical and supervision, as well as, sales and marketing related duties, the company had trouble in replacing its frontline employees. This is because most of the new hires did not have the commitment that the expats had. Besides, most of them were fresh graduates from colleges and universities. Thus, they did not have adequate work experience that would enable them to fit into the organization without training. In response to this challenge, the company had to review its staffing policies in order to hire the right people. In particular, the company had to identify the job requirements that new recruits had to meet in order to be hired. This included possession of excellent skills in areas such as communication, negotiation, and leadership (Jarir). Moreover, the company designed and implemented training and development programs in order to enable the new recruits to acquire the skills that they needed in order to perform their duties effectively. The company has had to change its human resource policies in order to attract and retain the best talent from Saudi. This involved offering attractive remuneration packages, flexible shift schedules, and acceptable work environment. In addition, the company implemented a performance-based pay system in order to moti vate the employees and to improve their productivity (Jarir). A performance-based pay system involves rewarding employees who are able to meet or exceed their targets (Martin 75). At Jarir Bookstore, the employees were paid annual bonuses if they achieved predetermined conditions such as sales targets. The Future Implications The new labor law has several future implications for the company and its stakeholders. To begin with, the company will have to look for alternative ways of reducing its operating costs. This is because it can no longer depend on cheap labor to maintain low costs. In this regard, the company is likely to focus on the use of modern technologies to reduce its operating costs in the long-term. This will involve the use of technologies that reduce human involvement in the provision of its services. For example, the company has already established a sales and marketing website that enables it to reach its customers (Jarir). Thus, the company is likely to focus on on line sales rather than the store model in future. This will help it to reduce the number of employees that it needs to serve its customers, thereby reducing its operating costs.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Jarir Bookstore specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second implication is that the company will have to strengthen its employ retention programs in order to reduce labor turnover. This is because the competition for skilled labor is likely to increase as more companies comply with the new law in future. Labor turnover is often high in markets where companies are competing for the few skilled workers. This is because employees will prefer to work for the few companies that are able to offer high wages (Hartel and Fujimoto 96). Consequently, the cost of acquiring talent is likely to increase significantly. The company can avoid losing its valuable employees by improving their commitment and job satisfactio n. The third implication is that the morale of the employees is likely to reduce as the expats leave the company. Employees usually lose morale in their work when a large number of their colleagues leave the workplace. This is because existing work relationships are destroyed and the remaining employees might not have adequate sources of support in their work (Hartel and Fujimoto 112). In addition, conflicts are likely to arise if the company is not able to integrate the new hires with the remaining employees. In this regard, the company will have to implement team-building initiatives in order to improve cohesion among its employees. Finally, the new law will enable the company to improve its reputation in the country by providing jobs to Saudis. Currently, the company has a bad reputation in the country because its staffing policies favor foreigners. However, the company’s reputation is likely to improve as it begins to hire more Saudis as required by the law. The Risks The implementation of the new labor law was associated with the following risks. First, the company was likely to lose its investments in knowledge and skill development as it replaced its employees from foreign countries. The company had already spent its scarce resources to train the expats on areas such as customer service, sales, marketing, and management. The benefits of this investment such as creativity among employees were likely to be lost if a large number of the expats left the company. This would reduce the firm’s competitiveness by limiting its ability to engage in product and process innovation (Madhi and Barrientos 70-77). Second, the company was likely to face disruptions in its operations if it was not able to find skilled Saudis to replace the expatriates. This is because the process of replacing employees who leave the company often takes a lot of time. Third, the company’s operating costs were likely to rise because hiring Saudis would increase the lab or costs, whereas employing foreigners would attract high fines. High operating costs was likely to reduce the company’s profits, thereby limiting its ability to expand to other markets.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The strategies that have helped the company to overcome these risks include the following. First, company has implemented training and development programs in order to replace the lost skills and knowledge in its workforce (Jarir). These programs will enable the firm to improve the competence of new hires, thereby increasing its competitiveness in terms of ability to meet market needs. Second, the company has focused on reducing labor turnover in order to avoid losing its talented employees. This involves using intrinsic rewards such as promotions, as well as, extrinsic rewards such as bonuses to improve job satisfaction, motivation, and employees’ commitment. Finally, the company has embarked on cost cutting measures in order to absorb the high cost of hiring Saudis. This involves outsourcing processes such as transportation and logistics. Conclusion The aim of this paper was to analyze the effects of Saudi Arabia’s new labor law on Jarir Bookstore. The new law requir es private companies to employ more Saudis than foreigners. Jarir Bookstore focused on employing more foreigners than Saudis in order to reduce its labor costs. The main effects of the law included increased operating costs and loss of skilled employees. However, the company is also likely to improve its reputation in the country by employing Saudis. The company has not only complied with the new law, but has also implemented strategies to cope with its negative effects. The strategies it has adopted include staff training programs, cost cutting measures, and staff retention schemes. Hamdan, Sara. Saudi Arabia to Fine Firms with too Many Foreign Workers. New York Times, 21 Nov. 2012. Web. Hartel, Charmaine and Yuka Fujimoto. Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print. Jarir. Company Profile. Jarir Bookstore, 31 Dec. 2012. Web. Madhi, Salah and Armando Barrientos. Saudisation and Employment in Saudi Arabia. Career Development International 8.2 (2012): 70-77. Print . Martin, John. Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Case Analysis Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 6

Analysis - Case Study Example It is a fact that Natureview is the main player in the natural food channel with a market share of 24%; however, in order to raise $20 million revenue by the end of 2001, the company has to re-strategize and increase its sales and output if it is to use this channel. The $13 million the company accrued in 2000 is not sufficient enough to offset its debt and may lead to absorption of the company by a larger firm. The second option of entering the supermarket channel has both merits and demerits. The main advantage of this channel is that products will be sold at lower prices than in natural food retail shops due to less number of middlemen in the supply chain. Lower prices lead to higher demand and ultimately higher returns. Furthermore, supermarkets take stocks in bulk than wholesalers in the natural food channel who take small quantities and break them further to distribute them to small retailers. On the other hand, Natureview would be forced to pay $10000 slotting fee per SKU for each retail chain. This means that the company may be forced to pay millions of dollars to be able to distribute throughout the country. In addition, the manufacturer will also have to incur marketing, advertising and trade promotion expenses including hiring of marketing personnel. Under this channel, the small scale manufacturer will be forced to expand its production to meet the high demand in the supermarkets. The first option would be to expand six of the best selling 8-oz brands to one or two selected supermarket channels in the region. The second option would be to expand four SKUs of 32-oz size nationally. The third option would be to introduce two SKUs of the multi-pack line into the natural foods channel specifically for children. The first option would yield higher returns for the company as the 8-oz brands are the most popular among consumers. However, for this option to be viable Natureview has to meet the

Monday, February 3, 2020

Literature review spontaneou pneumothorax Essay

Literature review spontaneou pneumothorax - Essay Example In order to attain this clinical ability, and add to knowledge and skills, this literature review focuses on addressing what is known about the condition, the signs and symptoms it presents, and the management of the chest drainage system which is the most common treatment for patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. Background and Definitions: Spontaneous pneumothorax is partial or complete lung collapse, either without any previous trauma, or with perceptible medical causes, and occurs as a result of the build-up of air in the pleural cavity. It is classified as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) and secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP). PSP may be present in patients in the absence of any fundamental lung disease, typically affecting, for example, a young, healthy, tall thin man. Also, a history of smoking may be associated with an increased risk of PSP. More than one third of patients with PSP relapse within a few years. On the other hand, SSP is found in patients with the complications of underlying lung disorder, which include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or infectious lung disorders. The risk of recurrence in patients with SSP is higher than with PSP, due to underlying pulmonary disease (Baumann, 2006; Baumann and Noppen, 2004; Guo, Xie, Rodriguez and Ligh t, 2005; Sheah and Peh, 2003; Roman et al, 2003; Ryan, 2005; Wakai, 2006). Symptoms Identified and Recorded in the Literature: There are two main symptoms presented by spontaneous pneumothorax, namely chest pain and dyspnoea. Chest pain is the most common symptom with regard to PSP. In Seremetis' study, (cited in Roman, 2003), 90% of patients with PSP presented with chest pain, which was commonly described as sharp and limited to the region of the pneumothorax, increasing with deep inhalation. Other symptoms include dyspnoea, tachycardia, decreased or absent chest movement and breath sounds in the affected area. However, patients with SSP commonly present more severe dyspnoea, making it potentially fatal. In particular, hypoxemia and hypotension can be severe in COPD patients with SSP. Symptoms of SSP can be difficult to detect, due to underlying pulmonary disease (Baumann, 2006; Baumann and Noppen, 2004; Roman et al, 2003; Ryan, 2005). Treatment: The most widely used treatment for spontaneous pneumothorax is the chest drainage system, the management of which is the nurse's responsibility. Therefore, it is very important that nurses know the functions of the chest drainage system and nursing interventions for managing patients. (Allibone, 2003; Lehwaldt and Timmins, 2005; Thorn, 2006). Chest drainage removes abnormal accumulations of air or fluid in the pleural cavities, while preventing air or fluid returning. It is necessary to ensure that chest drainage bottles are placed below chest level. The system includes three basic components: suction control, water seal, and collection chambers (Allibone, 2003; Roman et al, 2003; Thorn, 2006). The suction control chamber is used to advance the drainage rate and lung re-expansion. The British Thoracic Society guidelines (Lehwaldt and Timmins, 2005), recommend low pressure suction, approximately -10 to -29 mmHg; however, there is no consensus on the amount of suction that s hould be applied.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Case Study Of An Abusive Parental Relationship Social Work Essay

Case Study Of An Abusive Parental Relationship Social Work Essay Abstract: Child abuse and neglect are common social issues in differing degrees are prevalent in all countries of the world. This paper will discuss the case of Child L who is in an abused relationship with her mother. The paper will also focus on the issues faced by her mother as a single black parent with unstable financial and emotional history. It deals with the assessment of the situation with reference to the facts as presented in this case study and talks about intervention strategies to develop a care plan for Child L. Attention has been paid to interact with Child L and engage her in direct communication keeping in mind anti-discriminatory practices. Justification for interventions suggested has been included wherever necessary. Introduction: Until as late as a few decades ago, womens and childrens issues were not given due consideration. Women were usually blamed for their powerlessness to look after their children and guard them from domestic violence. This was mainly because they were unable to walk out of their abusive relationships with their husbands due to societal pressures and not having independent means of income (Humphreys Stanley 2006). Things have changed but slightly and single parenting has become more common. However, there is need to support single parents and provide them training in good parenting skills for them to be able to raise their children in a healthy environment. Socialization of children begins in the family, particularly, with the parents. Children learn to form attitudes that determine how well they will be adjusted as adults in society. They learn life skills, relationships, conflict resolution skills, and communication by emulating their parents or other socializing agents. Hence, it is not enough to blame abusive parents for their bad parenting but support by way of training, counselling, advice needs to be provided to them so that they can learn to be good parents. When all efforts in supporting abusive parents fail to bring about any appreciable change in the parents attitude or behaviour other intervention strategies like placements in foster homes need to be considered. The childs protection and well-being is in the balance here. Facts of the case: Subject, Child L is a 2 year old black girl Subject does not go to any nursery or play school Mother does not take her to the hospital or to see any doctors Subject does not have a father Subject has an abusive mother Mother suffers from personality disorder Subject under child protection plan Mother does not adhere to the child protection plan Mother has history of violence and convictions Mother was also a looked after child Mother is a school drop-out at 14 Mother does not have a permanent job Comprehensive assessments of risks that Child L is exposed to: Child L is isolated from the community as she does not go to play school and does not have any social interactions with people other than her abusive mother. The child needs to interact with others because social interactions create awareness and helps to build confidence; self -esteem and a positive attitude towards societal values, cultural standards and the willingness to accept authority of others and share responsibilities. The child is an infant and is probably not able to communicate effectively with others or express her anxieties and stress. Parents need to spend quality time with their children to understand their needs and desires. Talking to children and listening to them is a good way of spending quality time and having a good parent-child relationship. This helps children to have positive self esteem and develop a healthy respect for others as well. Mother is unable to provide a stable home for the child and the seventh floor bedsit accommodation is not conducive to proper child development. Living conditions have an important impact on health and development of children. The risk to proper child development is higher in low income homes (Ross and Roberts 1999). However, family income is not the only determinant of a childs proper growth and development. Mother is not mentally or emotionally stable and has convictions for aggression and violence. Research shows that mothers who are verbally aggressive with their children were found to be controlling and gave directions even for their play activities (Wiley-Blackwell 2008). They demonstrated a tendency to restrain their children by grabbing their wrists or shoulders. It was also found that children with verbally aggressive mothers refused to accept their manipulations and orders, though their resistance was often weak, short lived and indirect. It is important to remember that a parents verbally aggressive behaviour might damage the self confidence and self esteem of the child causing the child to have behaviour disorder in later life (Dwivedi Harper 2004). Child L does not have any one to intervene on her behalf in the event of her mother abusing her physically. The scene described in the case study when the mother asks her daughter to piss off is unfortunate. This scene took place in a public place, namely the GPs chamber. This is an example of the verbal aggression that Child L is exposed to with no one to intervene on her behalf. Physical and emotional abuses of this nature happen with many children in our society. Children are subjected to threats, commands, loud angry words, accusations and words full of mistrust directed towards them all the time. Mothers behaviour has been termed as unpredictable not suitable for healthy parent-child interactions. Parent behaviour has a deep impact on childrens emotional growth. The unpredictable nature of Child Ls mother can cause her anxiety and apprehension. The child will grow up feeling confused by her mothers outbursts and alternate mellow behaviour. This will impact her self confidence and her trust in other adults and she will not know how to emotionally deal with different situations. Mother does not have a support system and has very few friends or family members. As such she does not get much help in raising her daughter alone and she is impatient with her because she is over-worked and tired. In such cases the children are left pretty much by themselves and do not have much supervision or monitoring. The impact of being left unsupervised and unmonitored can have negative implications on young children, especially from poor families. Mother does not have a steady means of earning with practically no education and does not have a steady paid job. Studies have showed that children of employed mothers tend to be better adjusted socially and do better in academics. Daughters of employed mothers are more positive and less shy. Children with employed mothers also fit into leadership roles quite comfortably. For poor or working class people a mothers employment status is important as that has a direct connection with the mothers sense of well being (Hoffman 1998). Mother has a history of violent behaviour and the child is at risk of abuse. Instance of her verbal aggression towards the child has been noted. When a child is witness to violent behaviour at such a young age as Child L, the impression tends to be very deep and she may carry the scars of this fear throughout her life. Her faith in her mother will be shaken as she knows her mother to be her only care giver. In such cases children find it hard to have healthy attachments with parents, siblings or friends. Such children may develop depression and anxiety disorders in adulthood. The child does not have proper medical attention as the mother does not allow her to interact with social workers or doctors. This may be a dangerous trend as all children must have medical check-ups to determine healthy growth. In case of abused children, like Child L in this case, it is important for a medical practitioner to examine her for physical injury that may have been inflicted on her by her unstable mother. The advice of the doctor or health practitioner is also valuable in determining whether the child needs psychological help as well. Child L is lonely and this manifests itself in her reluctance to go away with her mother from the surgery where she is inclined to stay and play with the health practitioner. Isolation and loneliness only add to the burden of being abused by ones intemperate parents. Child L is isolated and does not have many relatives or friends to communicate with and form healthy attachments. This will increase her trauma and result in poor people skills in adult life. The child belongs to an ethnic minority group and is at risk of facing discriminatory behaviour from others in the community. Black African women face racial discrimination, oppression and demoralization even today. However, anti-discriminatory practices need to be implemented and the social care worker needs to be well trained in understanding diversity and in getting appropriate and timely health care for Child L (Malek Joughin 2004). Under the circumstances it is very difficult to monitor the childs condition. It is difficult to reach the child as the mother is not inclined to allow her daughter to socialize and be friendly. The social care worker assigned to care for Child L needs to be able to mitigate the mothers hostility (Falkov, Diggins Mayes 1998) and have access to the child at all times to be able to prevent her being abused. Monitoring Child Ls physical and emotional condition is also important as that will allow the social care practitioner to assess the childs current needs and provide intervention when necessary. Since the mother was also raised in a foster home she may not know how to cope with her childs emotional needs. Research shows that quite often parents who had been abused as children grow up to be abusive parents as they emulate the behaviour they had been exposed at a sub conscious level. As they were never given the opportunity to have responsible and caring parents they themselves do not develop good parenting skills (Saisan, Smith Segal 2010). Though the risk factors present in Child Ls case are many, it may be helpful to mention here that not all children respond to the same risks and their causal factors in the same ways. There is no specific risk aspect that can be associated specifically with mental, emotional or physical hazard for a child (Nemours 2006). Different risk factors can affect different children differently and children may exhibit different symptoms after being exposed to the same risk. The symptoms Child L demonstrates should be noted and then plan for appropriate interventions should be developed. Child Ls Needs, Safeguarding and Interventions: The Child Protection Plan is a means to help families and professional social care workers to interact and be able to establish the guidelines for parents to better safeguard their childs interests. The keys points of a child protection plan (Haringeys LSCB) entails that the child is to be kept in a safe and secure environment, the childs welfare has to be of foremost importance and the family should receive the support they need to raise their children in safety. Protection against witnessing violence- Witnessing violence can be a terrifying experience for young children and can cause emotional trauma. The mother needs to protect her child and not be the cause of her distress. Child L needs to be kept under child protection plan to safeguard her from being physically abused. The mother needs to be counselled about her creating an extremely damaging environment for her child by her aggression. Mothers untreated mental and behaviour disorder- Parents who suffer from depression, anxiety disorder, mental instability have trouble taking care of themselves, much less their children. As is demonstrated in the case study Child Ls mother is mentally and emotionally not very balanced hence she is quick to anger and is aggressive with her daughter. Parents who are themselves traumatized and struggling to behave normally may appear be distant and withdrawn from their children. Treatment for the mother is important as it will mean better care for Child L. Lack of proper parenting skills. Child Ls mother was a looked after child herself and probably did not have the opportunity to learn good parenting skills. She probably has unrealistic assessment of her daughters needs and the amount of care she deserves. The mother needs to be given parenting classes, support from community support groups and/or counselling therapy sessions to get over her own problems and learn good parenting skills. The plan should keep in mind the Children Act 1989 s 17(1) which says that it is the duty of every local authority to safeguard children and take care of their welfare within their area and provide a range of services appropriate for childrens needs (DH). Isolation and lack of support. As we all know that parenting is not an easy task and people need to spend a lot of time and effort to raise a child, especially, when the parent is a single mother. In this case study not only is the mother a single parent, but she has added problems of not having financial stability or a support system by way of friends or family. Child L needs to be protected from being isolated and in order to do that effectively, her mother needs to be supported to be emotionally and financially stable. Care must be taken to socialize the child and her mother. Safeguarding against abuse and neglect. Since Child L is under child protection plan, she should be closely monitored and any signs of abuse or neglect must be reported and taken very seriously. Repeated abuse can have lifelong repercussions for the child and can impact her relationships in future and damage her sense of self-esteem. Monitoring closely will also help monitor her mothers behaviour which can be remedied by putting her mother through anger management programmes or good parenting lessons. Scientific evidence proves that the family, school and community have a large role to play in the physical and mental health of individuals. Interactions with parents, peers and others in the community impact their behaviour beyond their normal genetic propensities. Child L, therefore, needs to be allowed to spend time with others in the community to be able to understand a wider range of behaviour patterns and be able to learn from them. This will help her to make correct choices as an adult. Socializing plays an important part in the general growth and well being of a child. Socializing teaches a child life skills and peer interactions help establish self-esteem and self confidence. The risk of Child L being isolated and not allowed to socialize can render her incapable to handling conflicts in adult life. There are several positive outcomes of socialization and these prepare the child for an independent and responsible adult life. Interactions with peers and others in the school, neighbourhood and community helps the child to learn how to regulate emotions, think independently and adapt behaviour to suit the type of interaction (Berns 2010). Research done by the National Institute of Child Health and Development shows that the quality of mother-child interaction, especially the mothers sensitivity to her childs physical and emotional needs was more important than whether or not the mother was employed as it determined the sense of security a child experienced, of attachment and love from the mother. The mothers employment status has little bearing on the childs behaviour but may be impacted if the mother is negative or insensitive to the childs needs. Safety of the child comes first and the case should be handled by professionals. Instead of focussing on individual case by case basis legislation is passed as a broad spectrum measure to curb the increase in incidents of child abuse. However, since the dynamics of child abuse can be varied people need to report child abuse and get help from professionals (Gil 1971). The child should be protected against repetitions of abuse and alternative solutions must be considered, for example, putting child under protection plan where the child is monitored by professionals regularly or be put in foster homes where proper care will be given to the child. Professional intervention in the form of direct communication with the child should be done by social care givers. While interacting with the child, the social work practitioner must ensure that the child feels reassured and relaxed. Since Child L is almost an infant the social worker needs to be very calm and friendly. S/he needs to reassure the child that the mothers aggressive and dismissive behaviour towards the child is not the childs fault. There is nothing wrong with her and she is just as lovable as any other 2 year old. Gaining the confidence of the child should be the primary objective so that the child feels free to come to the social worker if she needs help. Social worker must keep in mind that the child has limited language and cannot quite explain what she experiences. Observation is more important than interrogation (Saisan, Smith Segal 2010). Child Protection Plan Data has to be collected at different levels with sampling from all strata of society, while focussing more on lower income families. Social care professionals need to be trained to identify (Beckett 2007) and classify children who are victims or at risk of child abuse. Monitoring and reporting at all community levels must be ensured. Parents need to be monitored to check if they are receiving their basic rights and support from the government. A round the clock response system has to be put in place to receive and deal appropriately with complaints from abused children or anyone reporting abuse. A prevention plan needs to be implemented to prevent children from being abused further. Every Child Matters is a programme that helps to advance positive outcomes for children, young adults and families. It is an instrument of change and a tool to implement the Governments policy of elementary reforms for children and guidelines for safeguarding their well being. In this case study, as Child L is but an infant, the social care practitioner must involve the mother in this programme to be effective in this individual case. Every Child Matters draws its inspiration from the framework provided by the Childrens Act 2004. The four key aspects of the legal framework are given below (Fraser 2007): Children must be engaged in positive activities to bring about an attitudinal change. This can be streamlined by engaging experts in communication who will be able to provide the right motivation and remove barriers to learning. Young people must be encouraged and motivated to join and volunteer for community service. Creating awareness for young people to make the right choices about their own lives. Support should be based on individual basis depending on the needs of the child. Community groups need to be organized at different levels to work on child and family issues. Volunteers and social workers need to be able to provide guidance and counselling for abused children and their family members. A body should be set up to coordinate the work. Social programs should be introduced to raise public awareness on this issue and advise people on human and child rights to prevent children from being exploited and abused. Social workers team must be multi-disciplinary and be trained to identify victims that need immediate safety and protection and be able to organize for their safekeeping. Social workers should carry out home visits and on the spot inspection and coordinate with child protection agencies. Government and community social work agencies are doing a fair amount of work in this field. We need to integrate the effort made by these agencies by organizing life skills training (Maennantharat 2010), self protection training, and raise awareness about domestic violence, especially amongst minority sections of the community. A core group of professionals from multidisciplinary fields, including members of the community mental health team, will have to be involved in developing the plan further. The plan needs to include a continual assessment of the situation and check for adherence with the child protection plan and also include areas of concern as listed below (Haringeys LSCB): Indentifying and addressing the root causes that may harm the child. Being able to create a schedule that will have time bound activities for the social care givers and family members to stop the sufferings of the child. Specific tasks that target short term and long term child focused outcomes with deadlines and consequences for not being able to meet the target. A daily monitoring task for social workers for individual children to check the safety of the children on a day-to-day basis. A contingency plan has to be set up if the child protection plan fails in delivering the required outcomes. A regular reviewing system for the child protection plan has to be set up to check for efficacy. If the parent fails to adhere to the child protection plan as in the case study and the child is exposed to significant harm, care proceedings have to be started in a family court (Family Justice Council 2010). The local authorities in collaboration with social care workers will try to work out the necessary changes required of the family before involving court proceedings. A full assessment is required with provision of services mentioned in the child protection plan. The parents, in this case the mother of Child L, should contact a specialist child care law solicitor in case the case needs to be presented before a court. Legal aid scheme is available to parents free of cost for their legal representation. Family group conferences should be organized that will include the wider family and community support groups to encourage the mother to arrive at a solution. A guardian has to be appointed till a decision is taken to allow the parent or relatives custody of the child or the child to be put in foster care. Conclusion It is important to be conversant with knowledge and awareness of normal family interactions and child development process to be able to identify children who receive inappropriate and less care. It will also help the social worker to assess a childs situation and understand whether the child is at risk of neglect or abuse. A thorough and logical assessment of the case will help to implement programs that prevent child abuse and neglect. It will be useful in assessing a childs current needs and whether these needs are being met. In the event of the child having to be placed in a foster home it will help to customize placements based on a childs individual needs (AAP Policy 2000).

Saturday, January 18, 2020

‘Deadly Unna?’ By Phillip Gwynne Essay

‘Deadly Unna?’ was the first novel of the famous Australian author, Phillip Gwynne, published in 1998. The fascinating drama novel expresses the inter-racial friendship between two teenage boys, Gary â€Å"Blacky† Black and â€Å"Dumby† Red. The book focuses on many complications the adolescence face, for example racism, favouritism, relationships, families, exclusion and more. ‘Deadly Unna?’ is set in the Port and Peninsula of South Australia, the ‘Goonyas’ (white Australians) are based in the Port and the ‘Nungas’ (the Aboriginals) are located on the Peninsula. The reason for this separation is to emphasise the racial tension between the white Australians and the Aboriginals that the author is trying to present. The story is told from the perspective of the main character, ‘Blacky’. As the story is being told by a white Australian you would be led to believe that it is going to be a very biased story but in this case it is quite the opposite situation. Gary Black is one of the few, if not the only, characters from the Port that truly understands the similarity that the two races acquire which enables the readr to see Aboriginals in a different light from the generalised/sterotypical image common in Australia. Gary â€Å"Blacky† Black is the major character in this novel, as the basis of the book revolves around him and his experiences and complications he faces in his youthful life. Blacky is more academic then he is sport orientated, though saying this he does play football. Blacky has a rather large family consisting of eight children, a stay-at-home mother and a hindering father. Blacky gets along with his siblings though they do have the occasional conflict, he is proud of his mother but unfortunately has a weak relationship with his father because of a previous controversy. Though Dumby Red did not physically appear very often throughout the book,  one particular incident involving Dumby Red arose great racial contention. Dumby Red was a very enthusiastic, optimistic and extremely self-assertive character. He was responsible for Blacky’s change of mind towards the Aboriginals, he was the one the made Blacky see the Aboriginals for who they really are, not who they are said to be. ‘Pickles’ is Blacky’s best friend, he in highly intolerable with his disgusting habits and his lack of general hygiene and know one will ever know why Blacky’s relationship with him is so strong. ‘Arks’ is Blacky’s over enthusiastic and encouraging football coach, he was a great influence on Blacky’s football performance in the grand final. Clarence is Dumby Red’s sister, at one point in the novel Blacky was rather fond of her though he was warned by Darcy that he must be careful who he associates himself with. Darcy is Blackys next door neighbour, the elderly man is very king to young Blacky and is always full of good advice, Blacky enjoys spending time with him and hearing about his fascinating life. The book is separated into two sections, winter and summer. Winter being the football season and summer the off season. The beginning of the novel focuses on football and Blacky’s attempt to be the hero of his team. It briefly touches on relationship and racial difficulties though the real complications reach their climax towards summer. Horrific crimes occur making the plot very interesting, people are being blamed, hearts are being broken and choices are having to be made. The Port’s football team make the grand final, disaster occurs on a boat, family relationships are tested, there is dispute at the football awards, the death of a well loved character provokes outrage throughout the community, true friendship is being questioned and Blacky follows his heart to do what is right. The purpose/aim of ‘Deadly Unna?’ is to highlight the seriousness of racism that takes place in the country we live in, as well as focusing on many concerns that adolescences face today. This is very effective as the book is intended for young adults meaning they are able to relate and compare their  lives to the ones created in the book. The use of Australian ‘slang’ (for example youse, ya and g’day) in the novel was also very powerful as it strengthened the realism of the characters. Many people nowadays do speak with ‘slang’ and it is the stereotypical way the true Australians communicate. A definite strength of the book is that it is written in first person, the use of Blacky’s thoughts and feelings throughout allows insight into the life he lives during the dramas that occur. The fact that Blacky was not bias in his feeling towards the Aborigines also assisted in allowing the reader to understand both sides of the racial conflict. The only minor weaknesses in the novel were the friendship between Blacky and Dumby Red. Though is does discus how good of ‘mates’ they were, it did not go into great detail of the complexities they face because of their inter-racial relationship. The other flaw in the novel was the misleading blurb, the blurb deceives the reader to think that the story line will be revolved around Blacky and Dumby Red facing the community whereas it focus on the much broader community facing the truth about the Aborigines. Overall the book was thoroughly enjoyable and should be recommended to other teenagers. The humour the novel possesses mixed in with the moving theme of racism made the book a worthwhile read. As James Bryce, a diplomat, historian and politician, said â€Å"The worth of the book is measured by what you can carry away from it†.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Impact of Demographic Factors on Employee Engagement – a Case Study Mployee Engagement

A SYUDY ON EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT IN VASAN PUBLICATIONS PRIVATE LIMITED,CHENNAI J Swaminathan, AVCCE ABSTRACT Employee plays a vital role in each and every organization; the interest of employee will help to achieve the organization’s objectives. Successful employee engagement strategy creates a community at a work place and not just a work force. When the employees are effectively and positively engaged with their organization, they form an emotional connection with the company. This effects their attitude towards both their colleagues and the company’s client and improves customer satisfaction and services levels. In this project work the researcher has studied about how the employee has shown their interest in the job after joining the organization. The researcher adopted descriptive research and the data is collected from the employee through convenience sampling method with the help of personally administrated questionnaire. The questionnaire contains close ended questions and the sample size is 50. This data was analyzed and classified with the help of statistical tools and the findings and suggestion are extracted from the analyzing chapter. INTRODUCTION â€Å"Engagement is the state in which individual are emotionally and intellectually committed to the organization as measured by three primary behaviors: say, stay and strive†. Success today requires a good bit more and good attendance. Employee plays a vital role in each and every organization. The interest of employee will help to achieve organizational objectives. The extent that an employee believes in the mission, purpose and values of an organization and demonstrates that commitment through their action as an employee and their attitude towards their employer and customer. Employee engagement is high when the statement and conversation held reflect natural enthusiasm for the company,its employee and the product and services provided. For the past two decades we have been trying to realize the benefit of empowerment, teamwork, recognition, people development, performance management and new leadership style. There is a big difference between putting in place initiatives that have the overall goal of increasing employee engagement and truly seeing the payoffs. And, on the other hand, one might easily attribute low engagement to persistent downsizing, which lead to an erosion of loyalty and commitment. The working definitions of engagement largely defined in terms of how a person â€Å"feels inside†. However, when we ask people if the level of engagement in the work place would be readily apparent to a visitor from the outside, their answers are invariably â€Å"yes†. Job enjoyment, believe in what one is doing, and feeling valued all contribute to observable behavior. You can observe levels of excitement and energy, you can witness people going to extra length to solve customer issues, and you can see an ethic of quality and continuous improvement. Similarly, workplace behaviors indicative of low engagement – whining, low energy, passive-aggressive behavior, lack of teamwork – can be equally visible. NEED: ? This study helps the management as a tool of powerful retention strategy. ? Engagement is about motivating employees to do their best with their full concentration ? When an employee is effectively and positively engaged with their organization, they have an emotional connection with the management. SCOPE: ? Company’s wide programmes are known with the help of employee involvement. ? To ensure the growth of an employee with the help of this goal. ? The technique which shows largely to obtain the work improvement tool adequately PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: ? Whether engagement create positive attitudes in the mind of the employee towards the organisation and to its value. ? Whether employee’s disengagement arise due to the absence of appreciation or due to the absence of positive stroke. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 1. MR. JOHN ESTER. , BOSTON university, â€Å"employee engagement† VOL 3, PNO 342 – 349. In their employee attitude and engagement survey, measured overall engagement but also outlined that engagement has three components: Cognitive engagement – focusing very hard on work, thinking about very little else during the working day; Emotional engagement – being involved emotionally with your work; and Physical engagement – being willing to ‘go the extra mile' for your employer and work over and beyond contract . 4. Sudhesh venkatesh, HHR at TESCO HSC views employee engagement as a psychological association. The success is due to a corporate culture that support individual creativity as well as team work, paradox studies measure employee engagement term two dimensions: how employees feel (their emotion towards the company, the leadership, the work environment) and for how they intend to cut in the future(will they stay, give extra efforts). This is conducted regularly through a questionnaire and is measured on various parameters predefined by the HR team. Employee engagement needs to be measured at regular intervals in order to track its contribution to the success of the organization. . Ken scarlet, president and CEO of scarlet international: Employee engagement will make employee more contributed, more empowered, more loyal and will give the benefits such as high morale, happy environment and lower attrition rates. Organization can achieve employee bliss through employee engagement. 6. The conference board New York: author (john gibbons) published 2006: This literature review summarize s what is known on the topic of employee employment and what companies can do the foster true engagement in the work place. It provides a review of current research on their important and timely topic when workers feel mentally and emotionally connected to their jobs they are willing to apply discretionally effort to their company success. 7. Scottish Govt. publication’s 2007 (May) There is no discernable difference between the dynamics of engagement within the public sector rather difference in engagement level is result from organization characteristics, which level sectors that organizational site. 8. Human capital strategy volume-9; No. 3 August 2005: This article summarized engaged employee be gets satisfied customers. This in turn improves the profitability of the organization. HR should help in identification and reengagement of disengaged employee by launching special initiatives directed towards bringing this group of employees into the maintenance. 9. Harter, J. K. Schmidt, F. L and Hayes T. L (2001) It shows business unit level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement and business outcomes. 10. HRM Review, ICFAI University press Aug-2005 This article summarized about harnessing the power of an engaged workforce. 1. HRM Review, ICFAI University press, Feb-2008 This article summarized that through employee engagement activities the Indian information technology enabled services (ITES) and business process outsourcing (BPO) industry is maintaining and gaining increasing fraction and visibility and is expected to touch Rs. 30. 537 cr by 2010 as per NASSEM report. COMPANY PROFILE Mr. Puthur Vaithyanatha Iy er promoted Anandha Vikatan in 1926 as a monthly magazine exclusively catering to about 1500-odd yearly subscribers. In 1928,. Mr. S. S. Vasan offered to buy Anandha Vikatan for Rs. 200. From then, the magazine grew from strength to strength. No surprise that his investment into Anandha Vikatan proved wise as it eventually enabled Mr. Vasan to buy ‘Gemini studios’. Ananda vikatan is today, a household name in Tamilnadu. Since 1956, The managing director,Mr. S. Balasubaramanian has been stewarding the growth and diversification of vasan publications private limited The Vikatan groups today publishes 5 Tamil magazines with combined weekly sales of over 1 million and readership of over 10 million and were printing â€Å"The Economic Times† from Chennai for the period 1994 to 2001. PRESS: Ananda vikatan press is very well equipped with three headset, web offset machines (imported from Japan), each capable of printing four color forms. Vikatan press is also fully equipped with three flow line binding machines, two three way trimmers, cutting machines etc. on the processing side also Ananda vikatan press has kept pace with latest technology. The imported image setter, flat bed scanners and other latest process equipments add upto the production capacity of Ananda vikatan. RESEARCH DESIGN The study is designed as descriptive in nature since it attempts to obtain a complete and accurate description of situation.. Primary data for this study was collected by preparing a well structured questionnaire consisting of closed ended questions. The questionnaire was distributed to the employees and the responses were received from the employees. The method used for collecting the data is survey method. The sampling unit of the study was the various departments of Vasan publication Pvt. Ltd. Chennai. Convenience sampling method was adopted to decide the sample of 50 as permitted by the management out of 150 employees (Feb 2009 to April 2009) Statistical Tools Used For Analysis Percentage analysis, Cross tabulations, Chi-Square, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) OBJECTIVES ? To measure the level of employee engagement in the organisation. ? To identify the various factors influencing employee engagement. ? To compare the employer satisfaction & performances with the engagement of the employee. ? To study the existing practices for improving employee engagement. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Table-4. 1: Gender of the Respondents |GENDER |Frequency |Percent | |Male |48 |96. 0 | |Female |2 |4. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: It is observed that majority of the respondents are male (96%) and only very few are female (4%). Table-4. 2: Age of the Respondents |AGE |Frequency |Percent | |Less than 26 yrs |2 |4. 0 | |26 – 30 yrs |6 |12. 0 | |31 – 35 yrs |11 |22. | |36 – 40 yrs |10 |20. 0 | |41 – 45 yrs |11 |22. 0 | |45 – 50 yrs |4 |8. 0 | |Above 50 yrs |6 |12. 0 | |Total 50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: Among the samples collected, most of the respondents are in the age group of 31 to 45 years. Only 16 percentages of the respondents are in the age group of below 30 years. However, 12 percent of the respondents have crossed 50 years of age. Table-4. 3: Experience of the Respondents |EXPERIENCE |Frequency |Percent | |Less than 6 yrs |8 |16. | |6 – 10 yrs |17 |34. 0 | |11 – 15 yrs |8 |16. 0 | |16 – 20 yrs |10 |20. 0 | |More than 20 yrs |7 |14. | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is observed that most of the respondents (34%) a re having 6 to 10 years of experience. 20 percent of the respondents are having 16 to 20 years of experience and 16 percent of the respondents are having less than 6 years. However, 14 percent of the respondents are having more experience (20 years and above) which is the strength of the development of vikadan organization. Table – 4. 4: Educational Qualification of the Respondents EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION |Frequency |Percent | |Higher Secondary |13 |26. 0 | |ITI |11 |22. 0 | |Under graduation |12 |24. 0 | |Post graduation |4 |8. | |Technical |7 |14. 0 | |Non-Technical |3 |6. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: It is most of the respondents are having schooling (26%) and ITI (22%) education followed by under graduation (24%). Eight percent of the respondents are having post graduation degree and 14 percent of the respondents are having technical background. Table-4. 5: Monthly Income of the Respondents |MONTHLY INCOME |Frequency |Percent | |Rs. 5000 – Rs. 10000 |8 |16. 0 | |Rs. 10001 – Rs. 15000 |10 |20. 0 | |Rs. 15001 – Rs. 0000 |16 |32. 0 | |Rs. 20001 – Rs. 25000 |9 |18. 0 | |Rs. 25001 – Rs. 30000 |5 |10. 0 | |Rs. 30001 – Rs. 35000 |2 |4. 0 | |Total |50 |100. | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is observed that 32 and 20 percent of the respondents are in Rs. 15001 to Rs. 20000 and Rs. 10000 to Rs. 15000 per month respectively. 14 percent of the respondents are earning more than Rs. 25000 per month. Only 16 percent of the respondents draw less than Rs. 5000 per month. Table-4. 6: Respondents Opinion about their Contribution towards Productivity |Productivity |Frequency |Percent | |Very High |7 |14. | |High |13 |26. 0 | |Average |6 |12. 0 | |Poor |16 |32. 0 | |Very Poor |8 |16. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is found that 14 percent of the respondents agree that they have contributed more for the increase in productivity, while 26 percent of the respondents opine that they have somewhat contributed for increase in productivity. However, 48 percent of the respondents agree that the show poor contribution towards productivity. Table-4. 7: Respondents Contribution towards Reducing the Waste |Wastage Reduction |Frequency |Percent | |Very High |4 |8. | |High |9 |18. 0 | |Average |6 |12. 0 | |Poor |26 |52. 0 | |Very Poor |5 |10. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: In order to know whether the employees have contributed towards reducing the waste, they were asked to give their opinion, and based on their opinion, it is observed that 62 percent of the respondents have poor and very poor contribution towards reducing the waste. Only 26 percent of the respondents have high and very high level of contribution towards reducing the waste which is shown in the bar diagram. Table-4. 8: Respondents’ Contribution towards Reducing the Costs |Cost Reduction |Frequency |Percent | |Very High |5 |10. | |High |18 |36. 0 | |Average |16 |32. 0 | |Poor |5 |10. 0 | |Very Poor |6 |12. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: Wastage reduction will lead to cost reduction. In order to know this, the respondents were asked to give their opinion and based on the results, it is identified that 46 percent of the respondents have high and very high contribution towards reducing the costs, while 32 percent of the respondents have average contribution, and 22 percent of the respondents show poor contribution towards reducing the costs. Table-4. 9: Respondents’ Opinion about Team Building Activities at Work Place |Level of Satisfaction |Frequency |Percent | |Highly Satisfied |2 |4. | |Satisfied |8 |16. 0 | |Average |18 |36. 0 | |Dissatisfied |15 |30. 0 | |Highly Dissatisfied |7 |14. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table we infer that 30 percent of the respondents opine that they are dissatisfied with the team building activities at their workplace. 30 percent of the respondents are dissatisfied while 14 percent are highly dissatisfied towards team building activities at their work place. Table-4. 10: Respondents’ Loyalty Level in the Organization |Loyalty |Frequency |Percent | |Very Good |1 |2. 0 | |Good |4 |8. | |Average |9 |18. 0 | |Lower |23 |46. 0 | |Very Lower |13 |26. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is observed that 46 percent of the respondents are having low loyalty level towards their organization, while 26 percent of them are having very low loyalty level. Only 10 percent have good and very good loyalty level. Table-4. 11: Respondents’ Level of Satisfaction about their Salary |Salary |Frequency |Percent | |Highly Satisfied |3 |6. 0 | |Satisfied |21 |42. 0 | |Average |12 |24. 0 | |Dissatisfied |10 |20. | |Highly Dissatisfied |4 |8. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the table it is noted that 42 percent of the respondents are satisfied with their salary and 6 percent of the respondents are highly satisfied. 24 percent of the respondents showing average satisfaction and 28 percent of the respondents depict dissatisfaction towards their salary. Table-4. 12: Respondents’ Level of Satisfaction about their Working Hours Working Hours |Frequency |Percent | |Strongly Agree |3 |6. 0 | |Agree |20 |40. 0 | |Neutral |14 |28. 0 | |Disagree |11 |22. 0 | |Strongly Disagree |2 |4. | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the table it is noted that 40 percent respondents’ have agreed that they are satisfied with the ir working hours. 28 percent of the respondents show neutral opinion while 22 percent show disagreement towards their working hours. Table-4. 13: Respondents Involvement in Problem Solving |Involvement |Frequency |Percent | |Increased |18 |36. | |No Change |20 |40. 0 | |Decreased |12 |24. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is noted that 40 percent of the respondents show that their involvement level do not change in the past three years, and 36 percent of the respondents opine that their involvement level has been changed for the past 3 years. Only 24 percent of the respondents argued that their involvement level decreased in the past 3 years. Table-4. 14: Respondents’ Feeling of Motivation |Motivation |Frequency |Percent | |Large Extent |2 |4. 0 | |Reasonable Extent |18 |36. 0 | |Average |11 |22. 0 | |Certain |15 |30. | |Not at all |4 |8. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is noted that 36 percent of the employees felt that their motivation has increased to a reasonable extent, 22 percent of the respondents argue that it has an average increase, while 30 percent of the respondents opine that the motivation has shown a below average increase. However, 8 percent of the respondents argue that their motivation has not at all increased. Table-4. 15: Respondents’ Opinion about Team Spirit in their Working Environment |Team Spirit |Frequency |Percent | |Good |8 |16. 0 | |Average |13 |26. 0 | |Lower |20 |40. | |Very Lower |9 |18. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: Form the above table it is noted that 58 percent of the respondents have lower and very lower level of team spirit, while 16 percent of the respondents are having good team spirit, which is the indication of success of the organization. Table-4. 16: Respondents’ Level of Satisfaction about their Morale in the Organization Level of Satisfaction |Frequency |Percent | |Satisfied |11 |22. 0 | |Average |14 |28. 0 | |Dissatisfied |22 |44. 0 | |Highly Dissatisfied |3 |6. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is found that only 22 percent of the respondents are satisfied while 6 percent of the respondents are highly dissatisfied with the morale of the organization. Table-4. 17: Employees’ Influence over Quality in the Organization |Level of Influence |Frequency |Percent | |Highly Influence |3 |6. 0 | |Influence |13 |26. 0 | |Somewhat Influence |28 |56. | |No Influence |6 |12. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is observed that 56 percent of the respondents opine that employees have somewhat influence over quality, while 26 percent of the respondents agree that the employees have influence over quality. However, 12 percent of the respondents report that the employees do not have any influence on the quality. Table-4. 18: Respondents’ Opinion about the Recognition as Individuals |Opinion |Frequency |Percent | |Always |7 |14. 0 | |Sometimes |16 |32. 0 | |Rarely |8 |16. 0 | |Never |14 |28. | |No Idea |5 |10. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is inferred that 14 percent of the respondents agree that they always get recognition, while 32 percent of the respondents sometimes get recognition. It could be noted that 28 percent of the respondents agree that individuals never get any recognition from the organization. Table-4. 9: Respondents’ level of Importance towards put forwarding the suggestions |Level of Importance |Frequency |Percent | |Importance |6 |12. 0 | |Fairly Importance |8 |16. 0 | |Somewhat Importance |17 |34. 0 | |No Importance |19 |38. | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: On observing the table, it could be understood that 38 percent of the respondents show no importance while put forwarding the suggestions to management, whereas 3 4 percent of the respondents show somewhat importance, while 12 percent of the respondents agree that it is important to put forwarding suggestions to management. Table-4. 20: Respondents’ Level of Satisfaction about Balancing of Family life and Work life Level of Satisfaction |Frequency |Percent | |Highly Satisfied |2 |4. 0 | |Satisfied |16 |32. 0 | |Moderately Satisfied |9 |18. 0 | |Dissatisfied |18 |36. 0 | |Highly Dissatisfied |5 |10. | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE: From the above table it is inferred that the respondents are in both the categories. That is, 46 percent of the respondents are dissatisfied and remaining 56 percent of the respondents are satisfied in Balancing their Family Life and Work Life Table-4. 21: Respondents’ Opinion about Training Programme organized by the Company |Level of Satisfaction |Frequency |Percent | |Highly Satisfied |1 |2. | |Satisfied |5 |10. 0 | |Moderately Satisfied |8 |16. 0 | |Dissatisfied |28 |56. 0 | |Highly Dissatis fied |8 |16. 0 | |Total |50 |100. 0 | [pic] INFERENCE From the above table it is observed that most of the respondents opine that they were not satisfied by the training programme conducted by the organization. However, 12 percent of the employees are satisfied while 16 percent of the employees are moderately satisfied. On seeing the Bar diagram, it is observed that on total 72 percent of the employee are not satisfied with the training programme. Table-4. 22: Relationship between Age and Contribution towards Productivity Ho: There is no relationship between age and productivity H1: There is some relationship between age and productivity Cross Tabulation |Age |Productivity |Total | | |Poor |Neutral |High | | |Below 30 years |3 |1 |4 |8 | |30 – 45 years |13 |5 |14 |32 | |Above 45 years |4 | |6 |10 | |Total |20 |6 |24 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df |Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |11. 995 |4 |. 037 | |Likelihood Ratio |13. 146 |4 |. 034 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |8. 044 |1 |. 34 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval |Pearson's R |. 103 |. 121 |. 720 |0. 475 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation |. 085 |. 29 |. 594 |0. 555 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between age and productivity, the influence of age on productivity is meager. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there is some relationship between age and productivity. From correlation table, it is identified that the Pearson R vale is 0. 103 which is positive and hence there is a positive relationship between age and productivity. Table-4. 23: Relationship between Age and Contribution towards Wastage Reduction Ho: There is no relationship between age and wastage Reduction H1: There is some relationship between age and Wastage Reduction Cross Tabulation Age |Wastage Reduction |Total | | |Poor |Neutral |High | | |Below 30 years |4 | |4 |8 | |30 – 45 years |7 |3 |22 |32 | |Above 45 years |2 |3 |5 |10 | |Total |13 |6 |31 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df |Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |16. 617 |4 |. 015 | |Likelihood Ratio |16. 455 |4 |. 016 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |8. 379 |1 |. 053 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval|Pearson's R |. 022 |. 145 |. 154 |. 879 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation|. 029 |. 146 |. 198 |. 844 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between age and wastage reduction, the influence of age on wastage reduction is meagre.. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there is some relationship between age and wastage reduction From correlation table it is observed that the Pearson correlation value is 0. 022 which is positive and hence, there is a positive relationship between age and contribution towards wastages. . Table-4. 24: Relationship between Age and Contribution towards Cost Reduction Ho: There is no relationship between age and Cost Reduction H1: There is some relationship between age and Cost Reduction Cross Tabulation |Age |Cost Reduction |Total | | |Poor |Neutral |High | | |Below 30 years |5 |2 |1 |8 | |30 – 45 years |18 |10 |4 |32 | |Above 45 years | |4 |6 |10 | |Total |23 |16 |11 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df |Asymp. Sig. | | | | |(2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |14. 337 |4 |. 006 | |Likelihood Ratio |17. 017 |4 |. 002 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |9. 650 |1 |. 002 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval|Pearson's R |. 451 |. 117 |3. 502 |. 001 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation|. 344 |. 139 |2. 539 |. 014 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between age and cost reduction, the influence of age on cost reduction is plentiful. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected, the alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there is some relationship between age and cost reduction. Pearson R value (0. 451) in Correlation table proves that there is positive relationship between age and contribution towards cost reduction. Table-4. 25: Relationship between Age and Team Building Ho: There is no relationship between age and Team Building H1: There is some relationship between age and Team Building Cross Tabulation |Age |Team Building |Total | | |Dissatisfied |Moderate |Satisfied | | |Below 30 years |1 |3 |4 |8 | |30 – 45 years |6 |13 |13 |32 | |Above 45 years |3 |2 |5 |10 | |Total |10 |18 |22 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |Df |Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |1. 886 |4 |. 757 | |Likelihood Ratio |1. 981 |4 |. 739 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |. 206 |1 |. 650 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that there is no relationship between age and team building activity in the work place. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be lesser than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is accepted; there is no relationship between age and their opinion about the team building activities adopted in their work place. Table-4. 26: Relationship between Age and Loyalty Ho: There is no relationship between age and Loyalty Level of employees H1: There is relationship between age and Loyalty Level of Employees Cross Tabulation |Age |Loyalty Level |Total | | |Poor |Average |Good | | |Below 30 years |1 |1 |6 |8 | |30 – 45 years |3 |6 |23 |32 | |Above 45 years |1 |2 |7 |10 | |Total |5 |9 |36 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df |Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |16. 245 |4 |. 033 | |Likelihood Ratio |15. 257 |4 |. 032 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |8. 007 |1 |. 032 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval|Pearson's R |. 053 |. 165 |. 366 |. 716 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation|. 125 |. 154 |. 872 |. 388 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship etween age and loyalty level, the influence of age on loyalty level is meagre. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there exists some relationship between age and employees’ loyalty level in the organization. Correlation table shows that the Pearson R value is 0. 053 which is positive and hence there is a positive relationship between age and loyalty. Table-4. 27: Relationship between Age and Morale Ho: There is no relationship between age and Morale H1: There is some relationship between age and Morale Cross Tabulation |Age |Morale |Total | | |Dissatisfied |Average |Satisfied | | |Below 30 years | |4 |4 |8 | |30 – 45 years |8 |2 |22 |32 | |Above 45 years |4 |2 |4 |10 | |Total |12 |8 |30 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df|Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |7. 896 |4 |. 042 | |Likelihood Ratio |9. 386 |4 |. 025 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |6. 559 |1 |. 045 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval |Pearson's R |. 107 |. 126 |. 744 |0. 461 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation |. 080 |. 133 |. 555 |0. 582 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between age and morale, the influence of age on morale is meagre. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there is some relationship between age and morale. From correlation table, it is identified that the Pearson R vale is 0. 103 which is positive and hence there is a positive relationship between age and morale. Table-4. 28: Relationship between Age and Salary Ho: There is no relationship between age and Salary H1: There is some relationship between age and Salary Cross Tabulation |Age |Salary |Total | | |Dissatisfied |Moderate |Satisfied | | |Below 30 years |5 |3 | |8 | |30 – 45 years |13 |8 |11 |32 | |Above 45 years |6 |1 |3 |10 | |Total |24 |12 |14 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |Df |Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |5. 169 |4 |. 270 | |Likelihood Ratio |7. 487 |4 |. 112 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |. 437 |1 |. 508 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that there is no relationship between age and their level of satisfaction of their salary. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be lesser than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is accepted; there is no relationship between age and their level of satisfaction of their salary. Table-4. 29: Relationship between Age and Working Hours Ho: There is no relationship between age and Working hours H1: There is some relationship between age and Working hours Cross Tabulation |Age |Working Hours |Total | | |Disagree |Neutral |Agree | | |Below 30 years |5 |3 | |8 | |30 – 45 years |13 |6 |13 |32 | |Above 45 years |5 |5 | |10 | |Total |23 |14 |13 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |Df |Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |10. 986 |4 |. 027 | |Likelihood Ratio |15. 011 |4 |. 005 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |. 13 |1 |. 910 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval|Pearson's R |-. 165 |. 119 |-1. 158 |. 252 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation|-. 158 |. 134 |-1. 112 |. 272 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between age and working hours, the influence of age on working hours is meagre. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there exists some negative relationship between age and working hours set by the organization. Pearson correlation value of -0. 165 denotes that there exists negative relationship between age and working hours set by the management. Table-4. 31: Relationship between Age and Involvement Ho: There is no relationship between age and Involvement H1: There is some relationship between age and Involvement Cross Tabulation |Age |Involvement |Total | | |Decreased |No Change |Increased | | |Below 30 years |4 |2 |2 |8 | |30 – 45 years |11 |13 |8 |32 | |Above 45 years |3 |5 |2 |10 | |Total |18 |20 |12 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df|Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |1. 345 |4 |. 854 | |Likelihood Ratio |1. 360 |4 |. 851 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |. 144 |1 |. 05 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that there is no relationship between age and involvement in problem solving. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be lesser than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is accepted; there is no relationship between age and involvement in problem solving. Table-4. 32: Relationship between Experience and Contribution towards Productivity Ho: There is no relationship between Experience and productivity H1: There is some relationship between Experience and productivity Cross tabulation |Experience |Productivity |Total | | |Poor |Neutral |High | | |Less than 10 years |9 |4 |12 |25 | |10 to 20 years |9 |2 |7 |18 | |Above 20 years |2 | |5 |7 | |Total |20 |6 |24 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |Df |Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |13. 076 |4 |. 045 | |Likelihood Ratio |12. 796 |4 |. 034 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |8. 091 |1 |. 063 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval|Pearson's R |-. 033 |. 126 |-. 231 |. 818 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation|-. 038 |. 129 |-. 265 |. 792 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between experience and contribution towards productivity. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there is negative relationship between experience and their contribution towards productivity. On observing the correlation table, the Pearson R value of -0. 033 denotes a negative relationship between experience and productivity. Table-4. 33 :Relationship between Experience and Contribution towards Wastage Reduction Ho: There is no relationship between Experience and wastage reduction H1: There is some relationship between experience and wastage reduction Cross Tabulation |Experience |Wastage Reduction |Total | | |Poor |Neutral |High | | |Less than 10 years |8 |2 |15 |25 | |10 to 20 years |4 |2 |12 |18 | |Above 20 years |1 |2 |4 |7 | |Total |13 |6 |31 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |Df |Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |12. 867 |4 |. 038 | |Likelihood Ratio |12. 514 |4 |. 042 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |7. 315 |1 |. 055 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval|Pearson's R |-. 019 |. 153 |-. 133 |. 894 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation|-. 019 |. 155 |-. 135 |. 893 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between experience and wastage reduction. Hence the influence of experience on wastage reduction is meagre. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there exists some negative relationship between experience and wastage reduction. Pearson correlation value of -0. 165 denotes that there exists negative relationship between experience and wastage reduction Table-4. 34: Relationship between Experience and Contribution towards Cost Reduction Ho: There is no relationship between Experience and Cost reduction H1: There is some relationship between experience and cost reduction Cross Tabulation |Experience |Cost Reduction |Total | | Poor |Neutral |High | | |Less than 10 years |12 |9 |4 |25 | |10 to 20 years |11 |6 |1 |18 | |Above 20 years | |1 |6 |7 | |Total |23 |16 |11 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df|Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |20. 495 |4 |. 000 | |Likelihood Ratio |19. 287 |4 |. 001 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |5. 781 |1 |. 016 | |N of Valid Case s |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval|Pearson's R |. 418 |. 133 |3. 186 |. 003 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation|. 301 |. 151 |2. 185 |. 034 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between experience and contribution on cost reduction. Hence the influence of experience on cost reduction is plentiful. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there is positive relationship between experience and their contribution towards cost reduction. The Pearson R value of 0. 418 denotes that there is a positive relationship between experience and contribution towards cost reduction. Table-4. 34: Relationship between Experience and Team Building Ho: There is no relationship between Experience and Team Building H1: There is some relationship between experience and Team Building Cross Tabulation |Experience |Team Building |Total | | |Dissatisfied |Moderate |Satisfied | | |Less than 10 years |2 |10 |13 |25 | |10 to 20 years |6 |7 |5 |18 | |Above 20 years |2 |1 |4 |7 | |Total |10 |18 |22 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df|Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |6. 442 |4 |. 168 | |Likelihood Ratio |7. 066 |4 |. 132 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |1. 444 |1 |. 229 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that is, there is no relationship between employees’ experience and their opinion about team building activities involved in their work place. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be lesser than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is accepted; there is no relationship between experience and team building activities. Table-4. 35: Relationship between Experience and Loyalty Ho: There is no relationship between Experience and Loyalty Level H1: There is some relationship between experience and Loyalty Level Cross Tabulation |Experience |Loyalty Level |Total | | Poor |Average |Good | | |Less than 10 years |2 |5 |18 |25 | |10 to 20 years |2 |3 |13 |18 | |Above 20 years |1 |1 |5 |7 | |Total |5 |9 |36 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df|Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |12. 378 |4 |. 040 | |Likelihood Ratio |12. 372 |4 |. 051 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |9. 062 |1 |. 032 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval|Pearson's R |-. 418 |. 133 |-3. 186 |. 003 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation|-. 301 |. 151 |-2. 185 |. 034 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between experience and their loyalty level in the organization. Hence the influence of experience on loyalty level is meagre. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there is negative relationship between experience and their loyalty level in the organization. Correlation table shows the Pearson R value as -0. 418 which is negative and hence there is negative relationship between experience and loyalty. Table-4. 36; Relationship between Experience and Morale Ho: There is no relationship between Experience and Morale H1: There is some relationship between experience and Morale Cross Tabulation |Experience |Morale |Total | | |Dissatisfied |Average |Satisfied | | |Less than 10 years |5 |5 |15 |25 | |10 to 20 years |6 |2 |10 |18 | |Above 20 years |1 |1 |5 |7 | |Total |12 |8 |30 |50 | Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df|Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | |Pearson Chi-Square |11. 634 |4 |. 038 | |Likelihood Ratio |13. 829 |4 |. 030 | |Linear-by-Linear Association |8. 939 |1 |. 33 | |N of Valid Cases |50 | | | Correlation | | |Value |Asymp. Std. Error |Approx. T |Approx. Sig. | |Interval by Interval|Pearson's R |. 138 |. 142 |. 368 |. 338 | |Ordinal by Ordinal |Spearman Correlation|. 144 |. 142 |1. 008 |. 319 | |N of Valid Cases | |50 | | | | INFERENCE: From the above analysis it is found that though there is a relationship between experience and morale. Hence the influence of experience on morale is plentiful. INTERPRETATION: Since the table value is found to be higher than the calculated value, the null hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis has been accepted which means that there is a relationship between experience and their level of satisfaction towards morale. The Pearson R value of 0. 138 denotes that the relationship between experience and morale is positive. That is, employees who have more experience are satisfied toward morale. Table-4. 37: Relationship between Experience and Salary Ho: There is no relationship between Experience and salary H1: There is some relationship between experien